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An illustration in the 1305-14
Jami‛ al-Tawarikh
by Rashid al-Din.

Universal History

or Compendium of Chronicles

Ğāmi‛ al-tavārīḫ. Rašīd al-Dīn Fazl-ullāh Hamadānī

Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin defeats Ilak Khan, ruler of Bengal

Ms Or 20 f.127v Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin defeats Ilak Khan, ruler of Bengal, miniature from the Jamiʿ al-Tawarikh of Rashid al-Din
Il-Khanid Tabriz
Opaque watercolour, ink, gold and silver on paper

Shelfmark: Or.Ms.20
Holding Institution: University of Edinburgh
Title: Jami' al-Tawarikh (World History)
Alternate Title: Compendium of Chronicles
Subset Index: f.127v detail
Creator: Rashid al-Din Ṭabib
Creator Nationality: Iranian
Creator Role: Author
Date: c.1306CE or c.1314/15CE

Detail of miniature from the Compendium of Chronicles by Rashid al-Din. Shows the defeat of Ilak Khan, ruler of Bengal during the 13th century, at the hands of Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin, who was ruler of the Ghaznavid Dynasty of Eastern Afghanistan from 998-1030CE. Mahmud can be seen in the centre of the scene, astride an elephant and surrounded by troops, some mounted. The army of Khan, also on horseback, faces him, about to engage in battle. Arguably the greatest treasure in the library, the Jami' al-Tawarikh, or Compendium of Chronicles, is a world history which encompasses a range of cultures, from China in the East, to Ireland in the West, from the time of Adam. It is written in the Naskh script and contains 70 illustrated folios. Written by the scholar and courtier Rashid al-Din (d.1318), there is some debate as to the exact date of this manuscript, but it was almost certainly completed within the author's lifetime, making it one of the earliest copies in existence. It is one of the three main sources for the life of Genghis Khan and is considered to be one of the most important medieval documents in the world.
Sources: Hukk, M (1925), A descriptive catalogue of the Arabic and Persian manuscripts in Edinburgh University Library, Hertford. Talbot Rice, D. (1976), The Illustrations to the World History of Rashid al-Din, Edinburgh.

Source: Edinburgh University Library

Referenced on p.21, The Mongols (Men-At-Arms Series, 105) by Stephen Turnbull
Mongol warriors in armour, from Raschid-al-Din's World History.

Previous: Jami' al-Tawarikh: Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin about to engage in battle with the ruler of Bahatiyah (India), f126v
Next: Jami' al-Tawarikh: Flight of Muhammad ibn Suri, ruler of Ahangara, f129v
Back to the Ilkhanid Illustrations in Jami‛ al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din.

See also North Indian Infantryman in Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by Ian Heath, based on Jami‛ al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din.

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