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Spanish and North African Illustrations of Costume and Soldiers

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Visigothic? Stone Sarcophagus Panel from Almodovar, 6th? century. Archeological Museum, Cordoba.
Stone Sarcophagus from Alcaudete, Spain, 6th-7th century, Archeological Museum, Madrid
Sources for Illustrations in The Moors - The Islamic West - 7th-15th Centuries AD by David Nicolle & Angus McBride
Casket with spearmen, Northern Spain, 8th-10th century, Glencairn Museum
Valenciennes - BM - ms. 99, The Apocalypse, Spanish, early 9th century
Reliefs on vaulting bosses, 848 AD, Spanish, Church of Santa Maria, Naranco
Moralia in Job' by Gregory the Great. Spain, 914AD. John Rylands Library, Latin MS 83.
Cavalryman on a panel from the palace at Madina al-Zahra near Cordoba, Spain, 10th century
Spanish soldiers in Biblia de San Isidoro de Leon, 960AD, MS 2, 960
Mounted Hunters on an Umayyad Casket from Cordoba, c.966-968, David Collection Museum, Copengagen 5/2002
Ivory Pyxis of Ziyad ibn Aflah, Umayyad Spain, c. 969-970, Victoria and Albert Museum 368-1880
Ivory Pyxis inscribed with the name of Al-Mughira, Umayyad Spain, 968. Louvre, Paris, OA 4068
Ivory Pyxis from Madinat al-Zahra, Umayyad Spain, 970AD, Louvre, Paris, OA 2774
The Gerona Beatus Codex, Spain, 975AD, Girona Cathedral, Catalonia
Fragmentary dish showing an archer, Madinat al-Zahraʾ, Spain, 10th-11th century

Leyre (or Pamplona) Casket, Umayyad Spain, 1004-1005AD
Fatimid-Zirid Bas-relief of Musician and Drinker, 10th-11th centuries
Fatimid-Zirid Plate with a Battle Scene, 10th-11th centuries
The Pila, an Ablution Basin, early to mid 11th century , Xativa, Spain
Moorish soldiers on an Ivory Casket of Santo St. Domingo de Silos, Cuenca, 1026
Ripoll Bible (Farfa Bible). Catalonia, Spain, ca. 1027-1032AD. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Rome (MS. Vat. lat. 5729)
Facundus Apocalypse by Beatus of Liébana, Spain, 1047
Soldiers on a Moorish Casket from Cuenca, c.1049AD
Fatimid Horseman from Ifriqiyah on a Plate, 10th to 12th Centuries
Fatimid Ceramic Wall-Plaque with Warriors from the Sabra Palace, 11th century
Fatimid Ceramic Wall-Plaque of Archer from the Sabra Palace, 11th century
Subjugation of the Cantabrians by Visigoth King Leovigild, northern Spain, 11th century
Cavalry in thePsalter of San Millan de la Cogolla, 11th century AD. Biblioteca da la Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid
Capital with Spanish Infantry in Combat. Church of San Martín de Tours de Frómista, province of Palencia, Castile and León, Spain, late 11th century.
Guerrero armado, Liber Commicus, Academia de la Historia, Spain, 1073AD. Real Academia de la Historia, Cód. 22, Madrid
Biblia Sancti Petri Rodensis, the Roda Bible, Catalonia, 1050-1100AD
‘Guards at the Tomb’. Relief on a column capital, cloister of the monastery of St. Domingo de Silos, 1080AD
El Burgo de Osma Codex by Beatus of Liébana, Spain, 1086
Guards at the Holy Sepulchre, Lectionary, Santo Domingo do Silos, Castile and León, Spain. Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, Nouv. Acq. Lat. 2176, f. 265
The Spanish Military Orders by Guy Stair Sainty
The Portuguese Military Orders by José Vicente de Bragança

The Silos Beatus Codex by Beatus of Liébana, Spain, 1090-1109
Knights on the Sarcophagus of Doña Sancha, Benedictine Monastery of Santa Cruz, Jaca, Aragon, Spain, 1110-1120AD
Detail of soldiers of Alfonso III of Asturias in the Liber Testamentorum, c.1118AD
Detail of Alfonso II praying to Christ Pantocrator in the Liber Testamentorum, c.1118AD
The Turin Beatus Codex by Beatus of Liébana, Spain, early 12th century. Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria di Torino, Sgn I. II. 1
Fresco of 'David beheading Goliath', after 1123AD, from Santa Maria de Taüll (Vall de Boí, Alta Ribagorça) in the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Carvings on the archivolt, 12th century AD, Church of San Domingo in Soria, Castile and León, Spain
Charlemagne, Roland and the Knights on their way to Compostela, Codex Calixtinus, Spain or France, 1135-1139AD.
Privilegium Imperatoris of the Emperor Alfonso VII of León and Castile granting land for the foundation of a monastery, 1142-47AD
Fresco from the Church of Sant Quirze de Pedret, near Berga, in Catalonia, Spain, 12th century
Spanish soldiers in Biblia Segunde de San Isidoro de Leon, 1162AD
12th century Spanish soldiers & hunters in the frescos from the Church of San Baudelio de Berlanga, Soria, Castile and León, Spain.
. A Spanish Town Militiamen in Armies of Feudal Europe 1066-1300 by Ian Heath, based on the frescos from the Church of San Baudelio & Las Cantigas de Santa Maria
The Navarra Beatus Codex, Navarre, late 12th century
Massacre of the Innocents. Carvings on a capital, Church of Saint Cecilia, Aguilar de Campóo, Palencia, Castile and León, Spain, 12th century
Rylands Apocalypse by Beatus of Liébana, Castile (Burgos?), Spain, c.1175
The Murder of Thomas Becket - Wall Painting in Santa Maria de Terrassa, Catalonia, Spain, c1180-1200
Capital with the combat of Farragut and Roland, Estella, Navarre, Spain, last third of the 12th century.
Capital with the Combat of Two Knights on Foot. Palace of the Kings of Navarre in Estella, Spain, last third of the 12th century.
Navarre Picture Bible, Pamplona, Spain, 1197AD. Bibliothèque d'Amiens Métropole MS.108.
Pamplona Picture Bible, Pamplona, Navarre, Spain, c.1200AD. UB Augsburg – Oettingen-Wallersteinsche Bibliothek Cod.I.2.4.15
Soldiers in facemask helmets on the portal of Santa María la Real de Sangüesa, Navarre, c.1200.
Portal of Church of San Vincente Martyr at Frias, Burgos, Spanish late 12th century AD, Cloisters Museum, New York.
Mural of Knights. Monastery of Santa Maria de Sigena, Huesca, Aragon, Spain, c.1200AD. Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona. inv. 068712-008.

Soldiers in the Arrest of Saint James on the South Apsidiole, Church of St. John the Evangelist, Uncastillo, Spain, early 13th Century.
Las Huelgas Apocalypse by Beatus of Liébana, Spain, 1220
. Spanish Knights in Armies of Feudal Europe 1066-1300 by Ian Heath, based on Las Huelgas Apocalypse & Las Cantigas de Santa Maria
. A Jewish archer in Armies of Feudal Europe 1066-1300 by Ian Heath, based on Las Huelgas Apocalypse
Arroyo Apocalypse by Beatus of Liébana, Spain, c.1220
A North African al-Sufi manuscript - Vatican Ms. Ross. 1033, 1224AD
Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, en Sequera de Fresno. Relief of soldiers in face-mask helmets, Spain, early 13th century.
Illustrations of Andalusians from the story of Bayad and Riyad, 13th century
A mid 13th century North African al-Sufi manuscript - BnF Ms. Arabe Ar 2488
A Muslim Horseman on a silk hanging, Spain, 13th Century
Knights and Andalusians in Frescos from the Tower of Hercules, Segovia, Spain, 13th century
A Mounted Spanish Knight on a Relief Panel, 13th century. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 13.21
Statue at Pamplona Cathedral, Navarre, c.1250
Alfonso X the Wise with the arms of Castile and Leon, Tumbo A - folio 71, Cathedral-Library, Santiago De Compostela, La Coruna, Spain
Murals in the Monastery of Valbuena, Valladolid, Castile and León, Spain, 13th century, c.1270AD
Spanish, Granadine & Moroccan Soldiers of the 13th Century in Las Cantigas de Santa Maria
Spain - Middle Ages by Racinet
13th century Spanish & Moorish Soldiers in the frescos of The Conquest of Mallorca
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Aragonese soldiers from the army of King James I in a mural from the Tinell Hall at the Palau Reial Major
Gran Conquista de Ultramar, Spain, 1291 - 1295
Ceiling panel with a knight of the House of Anjou struck down by another knight, c.1300
Ceiling panel with a fight between a Christian knight and an Andalusian, Spain, c.1300
. An Aragonese Jinete, 13th Century in Armies of Feudal Europe 1066-1300 by Ian Heath, based on this panel
Archer Figure, Inland Niger Delta, Mali, Africa, 13th-15th century, Smithsonian

A knight and a Granadian fight in the Usatages of Berenguer I, Spain
The wall paintings of El Partal, Alhambra, Spain, early 14th Century. Also known as the Torre de las Damas
James I, King of Aragon, enters Valencia, conquered from the Moors. Fresco in the Castle-Convent of the Knights of Calatrava, Alcañiz, Teruel, Spain, 1325-1347AD.
Llibre dels Usastges, I-Constitucions de Catalunya, 2nd quarter of the 14th Century
Sepulchre of Ardevol, 14th century
Painting on the ceiling of the main hall, Alhambra, Spain, 14th Century, also known as the ‘Hall of Justice’ or ‘Hall of Kings’ (la Sala de los Reyes)
Painting on the ceiling of the 1st lateral hall, Alhambra, Spain, 14th Century
Painting on the ceiling of the 2nd lateral hall, Alhambra, Spain, 14th Century
Castigos (punishment) de Sanchos IV

Battle of El Puig, Altarpiece of St George, Valencia, c.1400
Crucifixion of St. Andrew, by Borrassà, Barcelona, 1400-1415
Pedro IV, King of Aragon, in the Roll of Poblet, 1409-10
Embrace in the Golden Gate, The Kiss of Judas, 1410-1425
Altarpiece of St. Barbara, by Sarria, 1410-25
Battle of El Puig, Alterpiece of St George, Jerica, 1420
The Alba Bible, Spain, 1430, including Brethren of the Order of Calatrava
Altarpiece of Saint Vincent, by Martorell, 1438-40
The Murder of Thomas Becket on the Alterpiece of Saint Blas in Anento, province of Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain, c.1440AD
Martyrdom of Saint Eulalia, by Martorell, 1442-5
St. Jerome & St. Sebastian by Ferrer, 1450
Tomb Slab of a Knight of St. James, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 15th century
Equestrian Figure, Djenne, Mali, Africa, c. 1450, Minneapolis Institute of Art
St. Vincent at the stake, by Huguet, 1455-60
Portuguese soldiers in The Archbishop panel, altar from Saint Vincent de Fora, c.1470
Saint George by Pedro Nisart, Mallorca, Spain, c.1468-70
. Spanish Infantry, 15th century, in Armies of the Middle Ages, volume 1 by Ian Heath, based on Saint George by Pedro Nisart
St. James the Major at the Battle of Clavigo against the Moors, attributed to Martin Schongauer, 15th century
The tomb effigy of Martín Vázquez de Arce ‘Doncel de Sigüenza’, Order of Santiago, c.1486
A detail of the soldiers in 'Saint Dominic presiding over an Auto-da-fe' by Pedro Berruguete. Spain, 1491-1499.
The King of Aragon presides over the courts, Usatges i Constitucions de Catalunya, c.1495.
Calvary, Altar of Sant Esteve de Granolles, 1495-1500
North African marines in William Caoursin’s Obsidionis Rhodie Urbis Descriptio, 1496. A description of the 1480 siege of the city of Rhodes
Spanish & Portuguese Costume at Jessamyn’s Closet (Mosty non-military).
The Pastrana Tapestries of Affonso V, showing Portuguese conquests in North Africa, late 15th century
Warfare and Firearms in Fifteenth Century Morocco, 1400-1492 By Weston F. Cook Jr.
Wood carvings of scenes of the Conquest of Granada on the Choir Stalls in Toledo Cathedral, Spain
Illustrations of Costume from the 1554 manuscript of The pilgrimage of Arnold von Harff in 1496 to 1499
Illustrations of Costume from the 1860 edition of The pilgrimage of Arnold von Harff in 1496 to 1499

Spanish Conquest of Oran, Algeria, 1509, by Juan de Borgoña, 1514
Renaissance Warfare by George Gush, Parts 14 & 15: Spanish
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent receives Barbarossa, 1533
A Moroccan in Kostüme und Sittenbilder des 16. Jahrhunderts aus West- und Osteuropa, Orient, der Neuen Welt und Afrika
The Attack on La Goleta from the 1744 copies of the ‘Conquest of Tunis’ Tapestries

1r North-African Cavalryman
5v Spaniards
8v Spanish Soldiers
9v Galicians
11r Basques
11v Basques
14v-15r Tunisian Ruler & Cavalry
16r Barbary Coast
59v Mamelukes
Eastern Mediterranean & North African Illustrations from: Histoire Des Turcs, by Blaise de Vigenere:
North-African Cavalryman by Lucas d’Heere, about 1575
A Basque peasant from Vizcaya with crossbow by Hans Weigel, 1577
Aztecs, Incas and Spaniards from contemporary pictures
The Ottoman Army Marching On The City Of Tunis in 1569, by Seyyid Lokman, 1581

A Turk of Algeria by Bonnart, 1678-1711
Illustrations of Ottoman Asian & North African Inhabitants after Jean-Baptiste Vanmour, c.1708:
Spanish Uniforms in the Augsburger Bilder, 1802-09
Uniforms of Spanish Units at the Battle of Talavera 1809:
Generals Guards
Line Infantry
Light Infantry and Marines
Line Cavalry
Light Cavalry
Spanish Napoleonic Uniforms from the NYPL
Spanish Uniforms of Joseph Bonaparte’s Army from the NYPL
Spanish Maps of Peninsular War Battles
Spanish Units at Albuhera
The Armies at Talavera: The Artwork of Dionisio Álvarez Cueto
The Spanish Army in 1808: The Artwork of Dionisio Álvarez Cueto
The Spanish Army at Bailen: The Artwork of Dionisio Álvarez Cueto
Uniformserie Suhr
Spanish regimental names 1805-14
Spanish Regiments by Year

10th to 19th century Egypt and its territories

Index of Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers

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