Illustrations of Turkmen of Anatolia from Iskandar-namah (The Book of Alexander the Great), 1416|
'The Origin of the Janissaries' by J. A. B. Palmer, B.A. pp448-481 in the Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Volume 35 Issue 2, 1953
Renaissance Turks by George Gush
The Corps of The Janizaries, by Arthur Leon Horniker
Janissary Orta Symbols
A scene with a couple portrayed as 15th century Ottomans, from Dilsūznāmah (Book of Compassion), Bodleian Library ms. Ouseley 133, 1455-56 AD
A scene with courtiers portrayed as 15th century Ottomans from Küllüyat-ı Katibi, TSM R.989, c.145060 AD
Ottomans in Khusrau and Shirin, 149899AD, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 69.27
Ottoman Soldiers in the Frontispiece of a Sulayman-Name, 15th-century, Ms. T 406, Chester Beatty Library, Dublin
Iskandar's (Alexander the Great) search for the 'Water of Life', from a Hamse (quintet), Ottoman, c. 1500AD
Persian & Ottoman Soldiers in a Persian Shahnama of 1501 - Khusrau Parviz and Bahram Chubina fight a second time
Illustrations of Ottomans from the Selīm-nāma by Şūkrī-i Bitlisī of c.1521-25. TSM Ms. Hazine 1597-8
Selīm-nāma by Şūkrī-i Bitlisī, 1524. The National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Ms. Yah. Ar. 1116.
Tercume-i Sehname, Topkapi Sarai Museum, manuscript Hazine 1116, 1540AD
Illustrations of Ottoman soldiers from the Süleymanname of 1558, TSM Ms. Hazine 1517
Battle of Mohacs, 1526 - Turkish miniature, currently on display at the Castle of Szigetvar, Hungary.
Ottoman Sipahis Presenting Severed Heads After the Capture of Temesvár, 1552, Futuhat-i Camila of 1558. MS. Hazine 1592, f. 25a
Suleiman the Magnificient receives John Sigismund of Hungary, 1556. Nuzhet el-Esrar el-Ahbar der Sefer-i Sigetvar, ms Hazine 1339.
Sultan Selim riding between Kutahya and Belgrade, 1568-69. Nuzhet el-Esrar el-Ahbar der Sefer-i Sigetvar, ms Hazine 1339.
Zafername or Tarih-i Sultan Süleyman, written by Seyyid Lokman, illustrated by Nakkas Osman, Ottoman, 1579AD. Ms. T 413, Chester Beatty Library, Dublin.
Fortifications along the Ottoman frontier with Safavid Iran
Crossing the Bridge on the Drava.
The Ottoman army arrives at Szigetvar.
Mehmet Giray of the Crimean khanate crosses a river.
Explosions at the fortress of Szigetvar.
The Funeral of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent in 1566
Sehname-i Selim Han, by Seyyid Lokman, 1581
The Ottoman Army Marching On The City Of Tunis in 1569
Murder of Ma'sum Beg, the envoy of the Safavid Shah Tahmasp, by Bedouin in the Hijaz.
Illustrations of Ottoman soldiers from the Nusretname by Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali, 1582. British Library. Ms Add. 22011:
Departure from the palace of the army for the war, 1578
Lala Mustafa Pasha in camp after his Victory at Kars, 1578
The Ottoman Army at Tiflis, 1578
Banquet given by Lala Mustafa Pasha to the Jannissaries in Izmit
Illustrations of Ottoman costume and soldiers from the Hünername of 1588 by Lokman, TSM Mss. Hazine 1523 & 1524:
Hunername: Murat I Rests After a Triumph
Hunername: Bayezid I, "The Thunderbolt," Routs the Crusaders at the Battle of Nicopolis, 1396
Hunername: Siege of Belgrade, 1456, by Sultan Mehmed
Hunername: Murad II at target shooting with arrows
Hunername: Suleiman the Magnificent hunting with Foreign Envoys
Hunername: Sultan Süleyman undressing in the disrobing chamber of Topkapi Palace
Hunername: Siege of Belgrade, 1521
Hunername: Forces of Suleyman Besieging a Christian Fortress, 1524
Hunername: Cavalry units participating in the Battle of Mohacs, 1526
Hunername: Suleiman the Magnificent and the Battle of Mohacs, 1526
Hunername: Siege of Vienna by Suleyman I the Magnificent, 1529
Hunername: Moldavian Campaign, 1538
Hunername: Suleiman advances to besiege Szigetvár, 1566.
Hunername: Siege of Szigetvár, 1566
Hunername: Suleiman the Magnificent, taken ill during the Szigetvár Campaign, 1566
Surname-i Hümayun, Ottoman, 1588AD. Circumcision festivities. Illustrated by Nakkas Osman and his team. Ms. Haz. 1344, Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul.
Sehinsahname, volume 1, Ottoman, 1581. Written by Seyyid Lokman, illustrated by Nakkas 'Osman. Ms. IUK F1404, Istanbul University Library.
Illustrations of Ottoman soldiers from the 2nd volume of Shahin-Shah-nama or Sehinsahname, by Seyyid Lokman, 1595-97. Ms. Topkapi Palace Museum B.200:
Sultan Murad III's Expedition to Revan
Sultan Murad III, upon the walls of Istanbul, anticipates the arrival of the Safavid Iranian ambassador
Imperial Parade passing before the Iranian ambassador
Grand Vizier Osman Pasas dismissal of the Iranian envoy from his presence.
Osman Pasa and Ja'far Pasa, Ottoman governor of Shirvan, in battle against the Cossacks
The departure of the prince's party from the Eski Saray, to the Hippodrome.
A ceremony of wearing a robe of honour for Vizier Özdemiroğlu Osman Paşa
Illustrations of Ottoman soldiers from the Siyer-i Nebi (Life of the Prophet), 1595:
The Prophet Muhammad and the Muslim Army at the Battle of Uhud, portrayed as Ottoman soldiers of 1595
Hamza ibn Abdul Mutallib committed to Islam, Siyer-i Nebi. Chester Beaty Library T 419.
Muhammad and His Army March Against the Meccans, Siyer-i Nebi. Chester Beaty Library T 419.
Muhammad sending waves of horsemen into combat at the Battle of Badr, Siyer-i Nebi. Chester Beaty Library T 419.
Mehmed III's Campaign in Hungary, including the Battle of Hacova (Keresztes) in Hungary, 1596. David Collection, Copenhagen.
Emperor Timurs Ambassador in the Presence of Sultan Bayezid Yıldırım (the Thunderbolt), 1599-1600AD. British Library. Ms. Or. 5736.
Arab soldiers in 'Abbas Ali in the River Euphrates', c.1600. 'Hadikat us-suada' by Fuzuli, Ms. Or. 12009, British Library
Tatar soldiers joining the army of the mahdi. Miftāh-ı cifrū ī-cāmi of Bistami, translated by Şerifī. Istanbul, c.1600. TSM B373
Eğri Fetihnâmesi by Nakkaš Hasan showing Ottoman soldiers at the Battle of Keresztes (Hacova), c.1600. Topkapi Ms. Haz. 1609.
Battle of Kereztes (Hacova) from the Dīvān of Nadiri, c.1603-17, Topkapi Palace Museum, Hazine 889
Album of Ahmed I, Ottoman, circa 1610. Ms. B.408, Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul.
The Tarjumah-i Shahnamah (Translation of Firdawsi's Shahnamah into Turkish by Sharif Amidi). Copied by Darvish 'Abdi, 1616-1620AD
The soldiers of Afrâsiyâb battle the Iranians for the first time
Isfandiyar lifts Kuhram, one of Arjasp's captains, above his head by his waistband
Sehname-i Nadiri, 1620s. Ms Hazine 1124, Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul, Turkey.
Ottoman Tüfekçi Soldiers in a Pāshānameh, c. 1630. British Museum, Sloane 3584, folio 20a
Portraits Of Ottoman Sultans
The Janissaries Use Of Volley Fire During The Long Ottoman-Habsburg War Of 1593-1606 And The Problem Of Origins by Günhan Börekçi
Ottoman Orders of Battle - late 17th-early 18th centuries
Surname-i Vehbi, festival 1720
Hamse (quintet) of the Ottoman Turkish poet Atai, depicting Ottoman, Hungarian & Polish Soldiers, Walters MS. W666, 1721AD
Ottoman Army In The Eighteenth Century: War And Military Reform In The Eastern European Context by Murat Çinar Büyükakça
Surviving Ottoman Flags
Fenerci Mehmed Albumu. Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi (Topkapi Palace Museum) Ms. Ahmed III 3690, late 18th to early 19th century
Fenerci Mehmed Albumu. Istanbul University Library (İÜK) copy (inv. no. T.9362), mid 19th century.
Les Anciens Costumes De l'Empire Ottoman Depuis L'Origine De La Monarchie Jusqu'A La Reforme du Sultan Mahmoud (Mecmu'a-i Tesavir-i Osmaniye) by Arif Mehmed Paşa, 1863AD
Postcards after Arif Mehmed Paşa
Mecmu'a-i Tesavir-i Osmaniye by Arif Mehmed Paşa, reproduced in Osmanlı Milli Kiyafetleri, 2008
Osmanli tekitat ve kiyafet-i 'askeriyesi. / L'Organisation et les Uniformes de L'Armee Ottomanne by Mahmoud Chevket Pasha, 1907. A secondary & tertiary source of late 18th to mid 19th century Ottoman military costume.
Illustrations made by or for Western Europeans:
William Caoursin's The Siege of Rhodes, 1496
The Battle of Krbava in Croatia, by Leonhard Beck, c.1514-6
Illustrations of Ottomans from an album by a Hungarian, Szigetvári Csöbör Balázsv, 1570
Illustrations of Soldiers from Nicolas de Nicolay's Peregrinations faites en Turquie, 1576
A Meeting With A Madcap. Text by I. Fletcher, Figure of Deli by H. Poulten after N. Nicolay, Perigrinations Faites en Turquie 1577
Ottoman Military Illustrations from Hans Weigel's Habitus Praecipuorum Populorum (Trachtenbuch), 1577
Ottoman Soldiers from contemporary European Illustrations by Melchior Lorck, 1570-83
I Turchi. Codex Vindobonensis 8626 of Bartolemeo von Pezzen, 1586 to 1591
De gli habiti antichi, e moderni di diverse parti del mondo libri due by Cesare Vecellio, 1590
Ottoman Military Illustrations from Peter Mundy's Album, A briefe relation of the Turckes, 1618
Ottoman Military Illustrations from Hans Sloan's 'The Habits of the Grand Signor's Court', c.1620
Pictures from the Zamoyski Album, 1640-1648
Ottoman Military Illustrations from the Ralamb Costume Book, 1657
The Dryden Album (Greek and Turkish Costumes), before 1663. Trinity College Cambridge R.14.23.
The present state of the Ottoman Empire by Sir Paul Rycaut, 1667
Figures Naturelles de Turquie par Raynal, 1688AD. Bibliothèque nationale de France, 4-OD-7.
Ottoman Military Prints after Caspar Luyken from Abraham a Sancta Clara's Neu-eröffnete Welt-Galleria, 1703
Paintings of Ottomans by Jean-Baptiste Vanmour, made 1699-1737
Prints of Ottomans after Jean-Baptiste Vanmour, c.1708
Le Sérail et divers personnages turcs, costume album, 1720. Bibliothèque nationale de France, 4-OD-6.
Der Kern Turkischer Geschichte (The core of Turkish history), 1739. A secondary source.
Galanterieen der Türken (Gallantries of the Turks) by Christian Wilhelm Kindleben, 1783. Some after Vanmour.
Costumes Orientaux, Monnier's Collection of costumes and clothing of the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century, 1786, Ville de Bourg-en-Bresse Ms 65
Pictures from Heinrich Friedrich von Diez's Album Costumes Turcs, c.1790
"Dessins originaux de costumes turcs", Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS 4-OD-23, c.1789-1807
"Recueil de peintures (costumes turcs)", Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS Smith-Lesouëf 228, beginning of the 19th century
30 Illustrations of Mamluks and Janissaries during Napoleon's Egyptian campaign in Description De L'Egypte
Ottoman Soldiers of 1805 from a Vinkhuijzen album: Vorstellung der vorzuglichsten Gattungen des Türckischen Militairs und ihrer Officiere
Illustrations by Octavien d'Alvimart, in Miller's Costume of Turkey, 1802
Origins and derivatives of Octavien Dalvimart's collection of Turkish costume
Travels in Turkey, Asia-Minor, Syria, and across the desert into Egypt during the years 1799, 1800, and 1801, in company with the Turkish army, and the British military mission by William Wittman, 1803
Ottomans in the Augsburger Bilder, 1802-1810
Illustrations of Ottomans circa 1809 from Stratford Canning's Pictures of Turkey
Albums of Ottoman Costume from the library of Lucien Boneparte, 1808-1826, compiled by Marcel Cousinery. School of Oriental & African Studies (SOAS), University of London, MS 60368.
Octavien d'Alvimart's illustrations, engraved F.H. Clark, in McLean's The Military Costume of Turkey, 1813
Voyage à Athènes et à Constantinople ou Collection de portraits, de vues, et de costumes grecs et ottomans by Louis Dupré, 1825
Illustrations of Ottoman Soldiers by Engelmann, Graf, Coindet & Co., Britain, 1828, of the 2nd reform of Sultan Mahmud II
"The fall of Constantinople" by Panagiotos Zografos, 1836
Illustrations of Ottomans in Elbicei Atika. Musée des Anciens Costumes Turcs de Constantinople by Jean Brindesi, 1855
Album of Turkish Costume Paintings Presented to Alexander III, Tsar of Russia, 1867 - NYPL Digital Collections
État militaire ottoman depuis la fondation de l'Empire jusqu'a nos jours by A. Djevad Bey, 1882
Troop types of the Hicks Pasha Expedition to Sudan, 1883
Ottoman Soldiers from other European Illustrations
Mentions of blue cloth for Janissaries in The Travels of Evliya Efendi, 2nd quarter of the 17th century
An extract on Janissaries and other Ottoman soldiers from Constantinople Ancient and Modern, with Excursions to the Shores and Islands of the Archipelago and to the Troad by James Dallaway, 1797
An extract on Janissaries and other Ottoman soldiers from Travels of Ali Bey in Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Syria, and Turkey. Between the years 1803 and 1807. by Domingo Badía y Leblich, 1816